The Sustainable Food Lab and Business Fights Poverty have been collaborating to advance learning on how to improve the economic benefits of trade with smallholder farmers. Growth in those farmers’ incomes is fundamental to economic and social development, to farmers’ ability to reinvest in their farms and to the sustainable supply of crops bought by global companies. This paper aims to clarify the roles and levers for companies and other actors, often working together, to help increase smallholder farmers’ incomes. The paper is based on input and interviews with experts from business, NGOs, donors, UN bodies and research organisations. This work will be showcased at the Business Fights Poverty events during the UN General Assembly week in New York, Sep 18-21. Find out more about the Business Fights Poverty Income Challenge here.